Only hints of the encampment remain owing to intensive recreational activity and later historic activity
in the area. Many possible wickiup rings have been reused as fire rings and tent outlines for hikers
and hunters. Many hiker and hunter fire rings and tent outlines look like wickiup rings and may not be.
HINTS OF THE ENCAMPMENT
This rock ring under the trees may have
originally been a wickiup outline but reuse
of the area through the years has disturbed
the original features and virtually erased
distinctive evidence of the Apache.
The most secure evidence for an Apache occupation comes in the artifacts found scattered lightly throughout the
area. Leaves and duff cover much of the surface so few are visible. Moreover, past USFS ranger efforts to clean
up the foerst have resulted in some artifacts being removed as trash. Still some definitive evidence remains, that
in aggregate suggests that there was likley an enampment under the oaks, not far from the ramparts.
Flaked stone and glass artifacts, cut metal, and a cartridge casing all suggest a late 1800s occupation, consistent
with Cochise's time.
This flaked glass artifact was found in a clearing
near the inferred wickiup area.
Recording continues, but those ramparts recorded so far face in several different directions. This suggests
that they were built to protect from an attack in any conceivable direction. This suggests their placement was
planned. The number built suggest that this was an important location, which as would be expected near an
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