THE MATERIAL ON THIS PAGE IS COPYRIGHTED AND SHOULD BE APPROPRIATELY CITED (C) 2010, Deni Seymour
If you listen to the novice they will tell you that Apache sites are difficult to identify in the field and that few are known. In reality, many are known, more are
discovered each day, and they are relatively easy to identify. Thus, its time to get on to more interesting questions which relate to the hows and whys.

To prove my point, this page presents the result of a foray last week along the San Pedro where a new Apache site was inadvertently identified. These are
some of the pieces of evidence that indicate it is definitively Apache. Any doubts have been confirmed by recording site after site related to this group. In fact,
these late Apache sites are the easiest of all Apache sites to identify and barely warrant mentioning, although many people still find it thrilling to find an
Apache site.
IDENTIFYING LATE APACHE SITES (NINETENTH CENTURY)
One of the things that makes the nineteenth century Apache sites easy to locate and
distinguish is that they often used Euro-American materials for their tools. There is really
little challenge to distingishing these later sites, which is why most useful effort now
focuses on identifying earlier sites that must be distinguished in the absence of these
late-occuring materials. The earlier assemblage is referred to as the Cerro Rojo complex,
while the late complex that includes use of metal and glass is called Cerro Alto.

This end scraper is made on a piece of aqua glass and is clearly retouced, showing flake
scars that are of the same character as many stone scrapers. it also has the same shape as
many stone scrapers and was likely haflted to facilitate use.
This side-scaper on a brown bottle sherd with retouce
along one margin was probably not hafted.
One of the tell-tale signs of an Apache site is a spokeshave. This is because
these tended to be used for very specific purposes that can be associated
with the Apache. On the other hand, many non-indigenous groups flaked
glass, including Hispanic occupants of the Southwest.
The ends of cans were often removed as was the lead seam
along the side. The provided a large flat piece of thin metal that
then could be used for a variety of purposes.
These triangular pieces of can with rims have been cut in a triangular form. These are
commonly found on Apache sites.
These nails and spikes of various sizes have been modifed, with
ends removed.
Bailing wire is the duct tape of the nineteenth century.
Many groups including the Apache used this wire for a
variety of purposes. The branches for Apache shelters
were often bound with bailing wire, to old the branches in
the desired shape before the brush, blankets, or hides
were placed over them. Sinue, yucca fiber, and fabric
stips were also used.