TERRENATE PRESIDIO REVISITED (Presidio Santa Cruz de Terrenate), 2007-2008 SEASON
New archaeological work began on the Terrenate presidio in 2008. Santa Cruz de Terrenate (AZ EE:4:11, ASM) is
situated on the San Pedro River in southern Arizona on Bureau of Land Management property. Officially the occupation
of the presidio dates between 1776 and 1780, but some soldiers continued to live there until 1788. The presidio was
made of adobe so the walls are under continual assault from the elements, eroding to the point where eventually there
will be little left. Treasure hunters frequent this site as well, hoping to find something period-specific to place on their
mantles, not understanding that by taking artifacts from the site they have forever truncated the link to genuine
knowledge of the past.

The name "Terrenate" is apparently a hybridization of Spanish and Nahuatl meaning "land the colour of masa" (which
is maize dough; "La palabra Terrenate... constituye un locativo compuesto con vocablos del español y del idioma
náhuatl, es un típico hibridismo que con frecuencia se da en México. De este modo terrenate proviene de la palabra
terreno y del apócope náhuatl atexcatl, el cual, a su vez, deriva de las raíces atl, agua y textli, masa. Así, terrenate
significa "terreno de color de masa." See http://www.tlaxcala.gob.mx/municipios/terrenate/index.html). The name has
been applied to many settlements as well as another presidio upstream on the San Pedro River in Sonora, Mexico.

Terrenate was established after a wide scale inspection of the frontier wherein it was determined that more presidios
should be established to guard against the menace of hostile indigenous groups. Moreover after 1772 regulations were
put in place that standardized many aspects of presidio construction and operation. Current work examines the ways in
which Terrenate deviates from the official plan and from the regulations. On the remote frontier priorities often differed
from those held in the comforts of political centers.
In the 1990s the BLM made some surface collections related to the development of the interpretive trail. Other limited
collections were made as unique items were found on the surface. Also in the 1990s a systematic surface collection was
made by the University of Arizona under the direction of Jefferson Reid. Examination of this surface collection provides
an idea of the range of variation present at the site. For example, some of the clearly European-introduced wares are
illustrated below. Such items may be indicative of status and gender. Such items are rare on indigenous sites in the
area and some (such as majolica, Chinese porcelain, and green glaze) occur only on the native village site of Guevavi
and on none of the other native sites investigated over the past 25 years (although beads and miscellaneous metal
items have been found).
Also of interest and significance is that there are only two locations on the site, identifiable through this surface
collection, that have the Sobaipuri pottery known as Whetstone Plain. Only one additional location is identifiable from
the whole and reconstructed vessels. Contrary to Di Peso's original analysis, very little of the pottery that he identified
as Whetstone is actually Whetstone Plain. Though he was the first to define this type, his classification was much too
broad to be of typological value. Now that there is greater focus on plainwares it is possible to differentiate Whetstone
from the may other plainwares found on Sobaipuri sites and at Terrenate. A detailed description of this is being
constructed on the Plainware Catalogue page and will soon be published in an article on Whetstone Plain.

Di Peso defined Whetstone at Terrenate and at the site he thought was Gaybanipitea (but which is likely Pitaitutgam).
Examination of what few collections are available at the Amerind Foundation from Terrenate and Pitaitutgam, and
inspection and chronometric dating of sherd samples obtained more recently from Pitaitutgam, it is possible to further
differentiate plainwares from this period. This effort has been aided by intensive examination of the plainware pottery
found on more than 30 Sobaipuri sites along the San Pedro and Santa Cruz rivers--sherds that have been luminescence
dated to the protohistoric and historic periods. The bottom line is that there is a specific type of ceramic with distinct
characteristics that can be defined as Whetstone Plain. This is a subset of the total constellation of plainwares that
people (including Di Peso) have been referring to as Whetstone.

Why is this important? Because Whetstone seems to be a pottery type unique to the Sobaipuri while some of the other
plainwares (that exhibit different surface treatments, paste colors and textures) are seemingly indicative of other groups
and are other types of Sobaipuri and O'odham pottery.
Chinese porcelain
Black majolica
Guanajanto Green Glaze, differentiated
by its brown paste from Presidio Green
Glaze, which has a cream paste. The
latter was found at Guevavi and is known
from many other sites. Cream pasted
green glaze is inferred to habe beem
made early, whereas Guanajanto was
made over a longer period of time,
including into much later periods.
The folded rim is thought to have been introduced to the O'odham and perhaps the Sobaipuri in the 1770s. It is not an
indigenous Sobaipuri trait and does not seem to occur on pots in earlier times.

Some vessels referred to as Apache have the folded rim, but one must question if these are actually O'odham vessels
that ended up in Apache contexts. If they are Apache, the presence of this trait suggests that it is not specific to any one
culture group but was a trait introduced late in time and that spread widely. It is possible that it spread to the Apache
from the O'odham as women potters were recruited to their ranks. It is also probable that this was introduced by the
Spanish or was European inspired. Rims with this folded character would facilitate the addition of a cover that could be
tied in place and therefore transported more effectively.
These figures show organic-tempered redwares and plainwares. These images show the black core, which can result
from organic compounds in the paste that turn the paste dark when fired, creating a carbon streak. Yet, not all pottery
with a dark core is organic tempered and not all dark cores are carbon streaks, though archaeologists often confuse this

These images also show the voids or vugs where organic material has burned out leaving holes and linear indentations
in the surface and paste. For the careful analyst, these voids or vugs must be present to identify organic-tempering.

Sometimes these voids will occur when organic material burns out that was not intentionally added but occurred
naturally in the clay. See a discussion of this in
Apache Plain and other Plainwares on Apache Sites.

Red slip on O'odham-made pottery is very distinctive and easy to differentiate. Often plainwares are fired in such a way
that they look red or use clays that are reddish, but in cross-section (not shown) it is possible to see that they are not
slipped. Unfortunately one of the student-originated papers on the pottery of Terrenate did not differentiate between
redwares and plainwares. That same study and others like it were similarly ineffective at differentiating Sobaipuri
pottery from that use and made by other groups.
Re-establishing and expanding the grid at Terrenate.
Black majolica including sherd with
most slip not present
Interior of a wheel-thrown vessel
Enlargement of the northwest corner of the presidio, which is now the focus of investigations.
Di Peso's published map of the presidio.
From this we see that features were numbered
differently between the field and the final report.

Also, not all the walls to the "apartments" were defined
in the field. Di Peso's final map shows walls that were
not apparently exposed in the field and certainly not
drawn on this master field map. What this means is
that the final map extrapolates based upon supposition
rather than using the actual room outlines defined in
the field.
The door ways are also incorrectly indicated on the published map. Our excavations are revealing that four adjacent
rooms are interconnected and were probably part of the same apartment. There is no doorway in the east wall of Room
27 that would open to the plaza. There is a doorway between Room 27 and the adjacent room to the north (Room 138)
and between Room 28 and the adjacent room to the north (Room 137). Many fewer officers were likely housed in these
rooms than previously conceived based upon doorways and room sizes.
This figure shows a piece of Di Peso's original field
map from the Amerind Foundation. This section
shows the west wall at the northwest side of the
presidio. Room definitions are very different than
on his final published map (as shown above).
The image below shows an unfinished field drawing of Rooms 27 and 28 based upon current excavations. Walls are
clearly visible, as are entryways. (Areas where brick segments are not shown are simply covered with adobe wash that
we have not yet removed, owing to an effort to preserve the wall while excavating.) The southern walls to Rooms 27
and 28 are offset from one another, perhaps suggesting imprecision in construction or intentional increase in space in
the apartment to the south.
Room 27
Room 28
Collapsed wall laying
intact on room fill.
Upper portion of adobe wall to Room 28 that
has fallen outward and remained in tact
because it likely fell onto room fill in the
adjacent room. Individual bricks with mortar
intact can be seen in a flat profile of the wall.
Dark brown bricks and gray mortar define
the outer perimeter wall of the presidio. It
was not regulation width.
Excavation by strata leaves volunteers uneasy as they are familiar with arbitrary and therefore flat levels. But attention
to stratigraphic information provides details on how the room was abandoned, collapsed, and filled. Given this
information, it is possible to differentiate between material on the floor and in the floor fill that relates to structure use
and that which was introduced after the structure was abandoned.

Removal of the upper three strata reveals melted wall adobe throughout much of the units in Room 28. Areas without
this Stratum 4 adobe seem to have been rodent and root disturbed but walls may have collapsed into portions of the
structure that are away from the northeast corner, leaving this area devoid of the thick layer of adobe. This suggests the
Stratum 4 adobe layer is wall melt from the outer wall and the south wall of Room 28, though clearly material has
washed in through the doorway in the north wall and pooled in the lowest, middle portion of the floor.
A section of the west wall of Room 28 abuts the
perimeter wall. Rhyolite rocks underlie thin adobe
bricks. The bench surface slopes down from the adobe
and rocks forming a distinct but unprepared surface.
The side or north wall of Room 28 is made of the same
thin long bricks with distinct mortar between them. A
large red-on-brown sherd rests on Stratum 5, which is
the ashy gray and mottled burned daub fill that
substantially post-dates the use of the room.
The top image is a close up of the east wall in Room
27 showing there is no entryway where Di Peso
indicated. Also showing size of bricks, which are
standardized, indicating they were mold made.
Lower image shows this from further way, placing
the segment in perspective.
Room 137
Room 138
(excavated by Di Peso)
What this means for us is that it explains why our Room
28 is bigger than shown in the Sobaipuri report. We
thought we were digging two small rooms whereas in
fact we are digging one small (Room 27) and one large
(Room 28) room.
JJ Golio excavates the entryway in the north
wall of Room 27, as indicated by Di Peso.
Exterior and interior of micaceous Whetstone Plain sherd from Terrenate, which is similar to
sherds from Alder Wash Ruin, Kuykendall Ruin, Guevavi, Baicatcan/Taylor Ranch, and
Whitlock Cienega. This seems to be a late variety or perhaps something introduced from the
Opata? Documentary sources mention pottery that contained flecks of "gold" in what is now
Sonora, and mica is easily mistaken for gold--except in this case the mica is silver-colored.
This is the only actual reconstructed Whetstone
Plain vessel from Terrenate. Di Peso indicated
there were several whole/reconstructable vessels of
this pottery type from this site but inspection of the
collection of whole vessels at the Amerind indicates
this is the only vessel that approximates this type.
This reconstructed vessel--found at Terrenate Presidio by Di Peso--has attributes that are transitional between the Whetstone
Plain of the 17th and 18th centuries and the Colono wares of the post-1770s period.

Other plainware vessels that Di Peso classed as Whetstone are substantially different and would no longer be considered
Whetstone Plain. Plainware was not the focus of study back then and so pottery with many dissimilar treatments and
materials were classed together by virtue of their dissimilarity to known types. Too few of these unusual plainware
specimens were known at the time to effectively sort them from one another. Now examples are widespread, though still few
in number, probably because some were imported from groups in northern Mexico. Inspection of plainware assemblages
from over 30 Sobaipuri sites on the San Pedro and Santa Cruz that were occupied throughout their term as a culture group
in southern Arizona provides a basis for a revised and narrower description of Whetstone Plain.
Whetstone Plain is the single previously defined pottery type that is indicative of the
Sobaipuri. Sobaipuri Plain is not Sobaipuri, despite its name. Examination of actual vessels
and sherds at the Amerind Foundation indicates that only a limited number of contexts
contained Whetstone Plain pottery. Di Peso had claimed several whole vessels and several
contexts contained this type of pottery but his definition at the time was far too inclusive and
includes pottery with a variety of surface treatments, paste colors and compositions, and so
on. Previous investigators have taken Di Peso's analysis at face value, propagating this
misinformation and contributing to the inability to solve the pottery issue as it relates to
ethnicity, status, and inter-group interaction at Terrenate Presidio.
Tasks (digging, mapping, note-taking, and screening) are divided between seven volunteers on this very productive day.
Between one and eight volunteers provide support for this research project each day from a roster of about 100.
Jennifer Hatchett, shown below, found the original plan for Terrenate that has been the subject of interest by historians for
many years. It shows other details of the presidio plan that differ from Di Peso's final map, suggesting that there are many
more questions to be addressed through excavations. One will be addressed by digging a section of the Commander's
quarters. Her forthcoming publication will be cited here. The figure below shows another contemporaneous presidio with a
similar layout. The red highlights the captains quarters.
Inspection of sherd boxes from Terrenate and the Whetstone Plain sherd boards from the Amerind
Foundation indicates that a relatively small percentage of the curated collection is actually Whetstone Plain.
Excavations initiated in the northwest corner of the presidio have already produced surprising results. Results are
surpising for a number of reason, including disparities between Di Peso's published report and his field notes.
Moreover, the answers to several long-standing questions seem readily apparent, owing in part to new understandings
that have arisen regarding space use related to class and race separation and the character of indigenous material
Laminae adhering to the inside of the perimeter wall in
Room 28 demonstrate that the room was filled gradually
through time as rain washed adobe from surrounding
walls, eroding the walls in thin layers and eventually
filling the room. These laminae make up Stratum 4, and
can be clearly seen in cross section. If this fill sequence is
duplicated in adjacent rooms it will be possible to remove
this stratum much more quickly as a single unit, owing to
the limited information value of this upper material.
Prehistoric cultural deposits were scooped up when presidial workers made
the bricks. Consequently, prehistoric sherds, flaked stone, and many other
items were included in the adobe walls. As walls eroded these artifacts found
their way into the fill of the historic presidio. Moreover, prehistoric deposits
lay intact beneath the presidio and move upward as roots and rodents churn
the sediments.

In the image to the left flaked-stone artifacts can be seen in the standing wall
stubs of the Commander's quarters, while the image to the right shows a sherd
in the north wall of Room 28.
Whetstone Plain is a very distinctive ceramic type. Too
many plainwares have been lumped into this type, but
sherds of this type are present at the site, and are being
found in increasing numbers.
Is this red-on-brown bowl sherd that rests flat on Stratum 5; shown above a precursor to late Tohono O'odham
red-on-brown wares or is it a prehistoric red-on-brown? Experts will examine this sherd to see if it has slumped into the
fill from the wall content or if it represents an early version of an indigenous decorated vessel potentially using paint
much earlier than has been indicated previously. The paste is sandy, rather than organic-rich, but there are voids where
small amounts of organic material seems to have burned out. The paste is relatively soft and the sherd relatively thick,
as compared to prehistoric wares. This makes it very much like O'odham wares of the 19th and 19th centuries.
Chunks of adobe bricks also fell into the fill and in some areas
whole wall sections fell into this or adjacent rooms. The bricks
shown here were visible from near the modern ground
surface, but were left in place under the assumption that they
could be a wall stub or an intramural feature. Continued
excavation reveals that a wall segment fell after the
deposition of Stratum 4, clearly showing that it is not a room
feature but rather a segment of wall that has tumbled into
Room 28. These brick fragments have been saved so that
adobe composition analysis can be completed.
Paint this early would not be too surprising because some of the earlier Sobaipuri wares also to have paint on them,
contrary to current notions, suggesting that many more were painted than we have thought, but that most of the red has
eroded off. This likely accounts for some of the variation in surface treatment. Previous conceptualizations are that paint
was introduced in the 1800s by O'odham who were copying prehistoric examples.
The dark exterior surface also shows voids where organic
material may have burned out. Polishing striations are
clearly visible because of an uneven (not fully smoothed)
surface and incomplete polishing. These are attributes
common to O'odham pottery, whereas prehistoric wares are
more fully polished with a hard surface where clay particles
have fully bonded into a smooth surface.
A circular feature encountered in the northwest corner of Room
28 is situated on a bench. Its placement suggests that was used
as a pot rest, but this shallow collared bench feature could also
have functioned to support large corner posts used to hold the
roof in place.
Burned daub or adobe chunks resting on erosion
layers of adobe fill and on Stratum 5 (ashy
sediment) suggest that the room's roof was burned
before collapsing. This, however, occurred long
after the room was abandoned. This image shows
the northwest quarter of the room.
When work begins on the Commandant's quarters (Casa del
Capitan) efforts will be made to compare and sort out these
three sources of information: (1) the original Nicolas de
Lafora map, (2) Di Peso's rendition based on his field work
in the early 1950s, and (3) on-the-ground evidence obtained
from current excavations. Compare this figure to the map
prepared by Di Peso above and note that a courtyard is not
depicted by Di Peso in the area of Rooms 16 and 17. Of
course these will be the focus of work in that feature area
to discern which, if either, map is correct.
This Capitan's house is one of the few areas at
the presidio that still has standing above-ground
walls. Efforts by the BLM to preserve these walls
requires constant monitoring of erosion and
re-mudding to preserve the original walls inside
the outer coating of fresh mud. Flagging tape
and nails laid down under the mud coating
provide a gauge as to degree of erosion and
signal the need for maintenance.
Di Peso sketched Room 138, calling it House 29 at
the time.
He also denoted wall construction characteristics for the outer wall, showing how the bricks and mortar were laid,
sketching an accurate representation of the wall, as shown by current excavations below.
Some of the interesting things we have found.
Al Christensen removes an entire thick stratum (S-4) in the southwest
quadrant by himself. The rest of us watch (and screen) in awe. The floor
is more than 70 cm below the top of the extant wall, although the fallen
wall segment suggests it was once 1.5 meters higher.
Chinese porcelain
The rhyolite used for foundation stones for the presidio walls were
taken from the cliffs along the San Pedro. The presidio is situated
above this cliff, protecting it from attack from the east. Water was
in the San Pedro riverbed which is nearby, and its flow usually
runs on the surface because water is forced up by the bedrock in
the Terrenate Narrows to the immediate south.
Mike Golio and Jean Giliberto measure and map walls to Rooms 27 and
28, as shown below.
Nancy Daunton and Al removewash layers adjacent to fallen
portions of the adobe wall.
Another Master’s thesis incorrectly suggests that organic-tempered pottery is Sobaipuri. This myth has been
perpetuated on a BLM web site that states that candlestick forms are "made of local Sobaipuri Plainware pottery rather
than the usual bronze or iron." While Di Peso made this connection some time ago, it is widely understood and has
been continually checked that organic-tempered pottery does not occur until much later. Sobaipuri pottery made before
this is not at all similar to these later wares that have been attributed by various researchers to either the Tohono
O'odham, groups out of Sonora, or to the Spaniards themselves. Confusion abounds regarding the presence of these
ceramics as researchers question who might have made them. What they are not considering is that native-made wares
are present in southern Arizona from here forward in a variety of non-native contexts because it is at about this time
that non-native populations became high enough and supplies of European goods were low enough (and expensive)
that production of utilitarian wares by local potters served the needs of natives and non-natives alike.
O'odham-produced wares are commonly found on Hispanic and Euro-American sites throughout this area up until the
turn of the century, when new sources began to become available. Not only did vessel forms change to accommodate
the Europeans but so did the production techniques and materials selected.

Organic-tempered pottery does not occur on any site prior to the O'odham Revolt of 1751 and it does not likely occur
until the 1770s. This issue has been discussed in
A Syndetic Approach to Identification of the Historic Mission Site of San
Cayetano Del Tumacácori,
Whetstone Plain, and also in Twenty Short Years but suffice it to say that Sobaipuri sites with
termination dates at or before 1751 have no organic-tempered pottery and sites (O'odham, but not specifically
Sobaipuri, and Terrenate) occupied in the 1770s have it. A site that was abandoned by the time Terrenate was
established (Guevavi) has only small amounts of it. This suggests that this new technology was adopted or invented
sometime during this window of about 20 years, as I note in the above-referenced article. These archaeological data
also indicate that organic-tempered pottery was used in small amounts at first and then grew in popularity as time
passed, superseding the earlier Piman wares, including Whetstone Plain. This may also be the time at which the folded
rim is introduced to the Upper Pima, as it is not a rim form found in the earliest Sobaipuri contexts. The folded rim has
affinities to Spanish-olive-jar rim form and some of the shapes developed at this time also seem to mimic the olive jar.
Such vessels might have been favored because they represented the newest and most fashionable technology. They
may also be particularly well-suited to transport, and so were selected for in contexts that required traveled or were
produced for transport functions.

This is not the only misconception regarding this site. A recent Master's thesis reports on metal artifacts that were collected
over a several year period by a metal detectorist who looted the surrounding area. The thesis incorrectly suggests that the
metal came from Terrenate and it's immediate surrounding area. Years ago when this collection was first accepted by the
BLM I was told that the collection was made from all along the terraces north and south of Terrenate and also from
Terrenate. This is important because there are many Sobaipuri sites in the vicinity from which these artifacts could have
come. These Sobaipuri sites contain historic glass beads and other metal artifacts so it is likely that some of the metal
items were collected from locations other than Terrenate. Moreover this portion of the San Pedro was a key travel route
throughout the historic period, which likely resulted in metal items being deposited into the archaeological record.
Probably most relevant is the fact that a nearby late-nineteenth-century mill site (Contention City) is located in the vicinity,
on both sides of the river. Metal and other artifacts from this occupation are strewn along the banks and terraces.
Moreover, the historic town of Fairbank is nearby, as is a railroad bed, and...the point is, this was a very busy place in the
historic period and without adequate provenience information the metal artifacts have lost most of their value.
Looted metal (iron and lead) artifacts from the banks of the San Pedro north and south of Terrenate.
A broken native-made vessel on the bench slope and in
the floor fill of Room 28 produced several sherds that
refit, providing and idea of vessel shape. A shell bead
was associated, perhaps explaining the fine white
shavings found throughout the entire room in Stratum 5.
The vessel was probably sitting on a bench along the
east wall, where a portion of the rhyolite foundation
stones are exposed forming a low narrow bench that
was probably used for storage. It may have been
introduced during the post-presidio use of this room.
The paste reveals that although it contains organic
material this is probably not an O'odham production.
Shell bead in Room 28 under pot break.
Three more were found in other portions
of the room.
This image shows the burned daub and ashy layer (Stratum 5) that represents the burned roof fall. This overlies many years
of rain-induced adobe wash that over lies the floor.

Seymour, Deni J., 2007a A Syndetic Approach to Identification of the Historic Mission Site of San Cayetano Del Tumacácori.
International Journal of Historical Archaeology, Vol. 11(3):269-296.

Seymour, Deni J., 2008 Apache Plain and Other Plainwares on Apache Sites in the Southern Southwest. In "Serendipity:
Papers in Honor of Frances Joan Mathien," edited by R.N. Wiseman, T.C O'Laughlin, C.T. Snow and C. Travis, pp 163-186.
Papers of the Archaeological Society of New Mexico No. 34. Archaeological Society of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

2008 Whetstone Plain: The Bane of Sobaipuri Archaeology.

2008 Twenty Short Years...

2007 Quiburi: The Sobaípuri-O’odham Ranchería of Kino’s Conception. Under review at ...

An Archaic dart point was embedded in the top of the adobe wall that separates Rooms 27 and 28, as shown
on left. This point is missing its base but is otherwise is good condition. This is one of three sizable dart
points found during recent excavations in and near this room. These and the highly patenated lithic
debitage suggest that there was a substantial Archaic occupation here prior to the ceramic period.
Foundations constructed of pink rhyolite stones underlie the three north-south walls along the west side of
the presidio. These are exposed along the east wall of Room 28 where the adobe wall is not as wide as the
foundation and therefore is set back from the foundation edge. This left a low 10-cm-high rhyolite bench
along the east wall that was seemingly covered with adobe. This bench was likely used for storage and the
vessel fragment shown above probably fell off the bench onto the floor, although it is possible that it was
added to the inventory of the room by native visitors following the European abandonment.
A low area is visible on the surface where the presumed courtyard in the Captain's house was located.
No walls are evident where Di Peso drew them, suggesting that the rooms and courtyard were
designed on the original plan.
A profile shows the various wash/in-filling episodes that resulted in about a meter of fill.
Notice the laminated erosion layers at the bottom of the section.
A completed excavation reveals the floor of the room and benches along the east and west walls. A portion
of the presumed bench along the west wall is shown with an adobe brick still in place in the middle.
Mary Dahl begins excavations on the upper units.
Bennett Kimball keeps notes up to date while
excavations proceed.
Images of exterior surface with ash adhering to rough places between polishing striations
on body sherd and when wet to show spatter and fire cloud on rim sherd.
As Di Peso noted for other
rooms, the floor is sloped,
not especially even, but is
This nicely crafted gray chert unifacially worked scraper (left) and gray-brown chalcedony bifacial reduction
flake with retouch or edge damage from use (right) were also found in Stratum 5. These and other flaked-stone
debitage suggest that the room was used by "squatters" or mobile groups during periodic visits after the room
was abandoned by the soldiers. It was probably during one of these visits that the roof burned.
Blue glass beads
The front and back of a button.
A key, possibly used for a wind-up clock.
An Olivella shell bead.
Blue glass bead
The following two figures show walls depicted on Di Peso's original field map in comparison to data obtained during the current effort by
exposing walls and entryways throughout this northwest sector. There is considerable variation in apartment size, suggesting rank was
paramount in comfort on the frontier.
Room 28 is part of a four-room apartment whereas the three apartments to the south are seemingly
two-room accommodations.
Lead musket ball.
A horseshoe nail
Evidence of lapidary activity is found in a piece of turquoise and a partially completed stone bead.
For a story about the Presidio