PROTOHISTORIC (LATE PREHISTORIC AND HISTORIC) PLAINWARE CATALOGUE FOR ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO

TIZON BROWWARE

YAVAPAI

FROM HEBER, AZ
BLACK CANYON ROCK SHELTER

IDENTIFIED BY HEATHER TAMIETTI
UNDER DIRECTION OF PETER PILLIS;
IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
APACHE PLAIN

APACHE

FROM HEBER, AZ
BLACK CANYON ROCK SHELTER

IDENTIFIED BY HEATHER TAMIETTI UNDER DIRECTION
OF PETER PILLIS; IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
APACHE PLAIN

APACHE

FROM HEBER, AZ
SITE NEAR BLACK CANYON ROCK SHELTER

IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
This page is intended as an interactive catalogue on protohistoric plainwares in Arizona and New Mexico. The page does not have
blogging capabilities but interested participants can send information and examples (jpg) that will be posted. The purpose is to promote
communication and knowledge. The goal is to raise the information value of plainware sherd samples. Emphasis is being placed on
sherds because this is mostly what is found in field contexts. Whole vessels and vessel fragments will be posted too, but these examples
will be most beneficial when close-up images of the vessel surface (from several portions of the vessel to show variation) and
paste/cross-section/sherd profile from broken edges are included. The content of this page is intended for use in field identification.
Another page reports type descriptions and partial descriptions as they develop, but the goal in posting type descriptions is to revise
them because as they exist they are largely uninformative and not representative or inclusive of the range of variation. These
specimens result from examination of collections in all key repositories and from those encountered during on-going fieldwork.
TIZON BROWNWARE

YAVAPAI

FROM AZ O:15:52 (ASM)

IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR;
ALAN FERG CONSIDERS THIS APACHE PLAIN
"APACHE PLAIN" (BROWNWARE)

APACHE

FROM AZ O:15:52 (ASM)

IDENTIFIED BY ALAN FERG
ORIGINALLY IDENTIFIED BY JAMES GIFFORD
1980; TYPE DESCRIPTION LINK; RETROFIT
TO VERDE 15:31 (GP)
IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
SIERRA PLAIN

APACHE

FROM NORTH OTERO MESA, NM


IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
LOWER COLORADO RIVER PLAINWARE

FROM: CABEBREAJ, ANZA-BORREGO DESERT, CA

IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
WHETSTONE PLAIN

SOBAIPURI

FROM SAN PEDRO, AZ


IDENTIFIED BY CHARLES DI PESO
FROM SHERD BOARD
TYPE DESCRIPTION
WHETSTONE PLAIN

SOBAIPURI

FROM SAN PEDRO, AZ


IDENTIFIED BY CHARLES DI PESO
FROM SHERD BOARD
WHETSTONE PLAIN

SOBAIPURI

FROM SAN PEDRO, AZ


IDENTIFIED BY CHARLES DI PESO
FROM SHERD BOARD
APACHE PLAIN

APACHE

FROM APACHE CAVE

IDENTIFIED BY
SAN MIGUEL MICACEOUS

JICARILLA APACHE

FROM TYPE COLLECTION LABORATORY OF
ANTHROPOLOGY, SANTA FE, NM


IDENTIFIED BY GUNNERSON
WHETSTONE PLAIN;
PADDLE-AND-ANVIL DIMPLES ON
INTERIOR SURFACE

SOBAIPURI

FROM SAN PEDRO RIVER


IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
UTE PLAINWARE; NUMIC SHERDS



FROM 42UN5406, COLORADO


IDENTIFIED BY DAVID HILL
APACHE PLAIN, STRAWBERRY VARIETY

APACHE

FROM HEBER, AZ
BLACK CANYON ROCK SHELTER

IDENTIFIED BY HEATHER TAMIETTI UNDER
DIRECTION OF PETER PILLIS
APACHE PLAIN

APACHE

FROM HEBER, AZ
BLACK CANYON ROCK SHELTER

IDENTIFIED BY HEATHER TAMIETTI UNDER DIRECTION OF
PETER PILLIS; IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
NOTICE FINE PASTE, BROAD (NOT DEEP)
STRIATIONS FROM WIPING, AND BROWN
COLOR (NOT SHOWN OWING TO POOR
LIGHTING CONDITIONS)
COLOR OFF FROM POOR
LIGHTING CONDITIONS
OCATE MICACEOUS

JICARILLA APACHE

FROM TYPE COLLECTION LABORATORY OF
ANTHROPOLOGY, SANTA FE, NM


IDENTIFIED BY GUNNERSON
PERDIDO PLAIN

JICARILLA APACHE

FROM TYPE COLLECTION LABORATORY OF
ANTHROPOLOGY, SANTA FE, NM


IDENTIFIED BY GUNNERSON
CIMARRON MICACEOUS

JICARILLA APACHE

FROM TYPE COLLECTION LABORATORY OF
ANTHROPOLOGY, SANTA FE, NM


IDENTIFIED BY GUNNERSON
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
EXTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
INTERIOR
EXTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
EXTERIOR
INTERIOR
WHETSTONE PLAIN, AMADO VARIETY

SOBAIPURI

FROM TUBAC AREA, AZ
SHARPLES SITE

IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
WHETSTONE PLAIN AND PLAINWARES FOUND ON SOBAIPURI SITES

SOBAIPURI

FROM SAN PEDRO RIVER AND SANTA CRUZ RIVER

IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
OSL DATE: AD 1424-1524
INTERIOR
THE MATERIAL ON THIS PAGE IS COPYRIGHTED AND SHOULD BE APPROPRIATELY CITED (C) 2007-2008, Deni Seymour
TYPE DESCRIPTIONS
TOHONO O'ODHAM RED OR PAPAGO RED
(ORGANIC TEMPERED)

TOHONO O'ODHAM

FROM , AZ


IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
TOHONO O'ODHAM PLAIN OR PAPAGO
PLAIN (ORGANIC TEMPERED)

TOHONO O'ODHAM

FROM , AZ


IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
PLAINWARES ARE SHOWN FROM TERRENATE PRESIDIO THAT DI PESO CLASSED AS WHETSTONE PLAIN BUT WHICH ARE ACTUALLY
PLAINWARES OF OTHER DEFINITIONS. POLISHING IS AN IMPORTANT FINISHING PROCESS THAT DIFFERENTIATES PLAINWARES. OTHER
FINISHING TECHNIQUES ARE ALSO DISTINCTIVE FOR PARTICULAR TIME PERIODS AND CULTURE GROUPS. WHILE PLAINWARES WITH A
VARIETY OF FINISHES ARE FOUND ON SOBAIPURI SITES, INCLUDING SOME OF THOSE SHOWN HERE, THEY ARE NOT WHETSTONE PLAIN IN
THE STRICT SENSE OF THE DEFINITION. NOR ARE THESE VARIETIES AS WIDESPREAD IN THE SOUTHWEST AS THOSE THAT FALL SOLIDLY
INTO THE WHETSTONE CLASSIFICATION. SOME ARE LIKELY IMPORTS.
EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR OF MICACEOUS WHETSTONE PLAIN FROM
TERRENATE, WHICH IS SIMILAR TO SHERDS FROM ALDER WASH
RUIN, KUYKENDALL RUIN, GUEVAVI, AND WHITLOCK CIENEGA. THIS
SEEMS TO BE A LATE VARIETY.
IS THIS A TARAHUMAN WARE OR IS IT SPATTER FROM FOOD
PREPARATION? SIMILAR DECORATIVE FEATURES ADORN
MODERN VESSELS FROM THE TARAHUMARA AREA AND
TARAHUMANS SOMETIMES SERVED AS SPANISH MILITARY
AUXILARIES.
THIS IS THE ONLY ACTUAL RECONSTRUCTED WHETSTONE PLAIN
VESSEL FROM TERRENATE.
THIS BOWL HAS SEVERAL SURFACE TREATMENTS REPRESENTED (TWO
SHOWN HERE) BUT NONE ARE TYPICAL OF WHETSTONE PLAIN, PER SE.
PLAINWARES WITH THE DISTINCTIVE PASTE AND SURFACE TREATMENT
SHOWN HERE ARE SOMETIMES FOUND ON SOBAIPURI SITES ON THE SAN
PEDRO BUT THEY ARE NOT WHETSTONE PLAIN.
THIS UNIQUE SURFACE TREATMENT, PASTE COLOR, AND
TEXTURE IS NOT COMMON IN THE AREA AND MAY BE
INDICATIVE OF A NATIVE GROUP FROM THE SOUTH.
THIS VESSEL FRAGMENT WAS DOCUMENTED FROM INSIDE A SOBAIPURI HOUSE, AS WERE ALL OF THESE SPECIMENS
THAT HAVE BEEN COLLECTED FOR SUBMISSION FOR OPTICALLY STIMULATED LUMINESCENCE DATING.
NOTICE REMNANT RED PAINT ON THIS SHERD
EXTERIOR. RECENT RESEARCH IS SUGGESTING
THAT THE MATTE-SURFACE WHETSTONE PLAIN
MAY ACTUALLY HAVE BEEN PAINTED. OTHER
EXAMPLES ARE NOW KNOWN.
ANCESTRAL APACHE POTTERY FROM SAN LAZARO AREA, TWO DIFFERENT
VESSELS, ALTHOUGH SOME PUEBLOAN PLAINWARES LOOK SIMILAR
IDENTIFIED BY DAVID HILL
OSL DATE: AD
EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR
OF MICACEOUS
WHETSTONE PLAIN FROM
KUYKENDALL RUIN.
THIS VERY EARLY O'ODHAM WARE
EXHIBITS A PADDLE MARK ON
EXTERIOR MATTE SURFACE.

THE EXTERIOR SURFACE IS GRAY
BUT THE CLAY IS BROWN.
BEFORE REMOVAL OF PROTECTIVE
CALCIUM CARBONATE BUILD-UP
WHETSTONE PLAIN, TUBAC VARIETY

SOBAIPURI

FROM TUBAC AREA, AZ
SHARPLES SITE

IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
OSL DATE: AD 1424-1524
SERI MINATURE JAR
COMPARE TO PASTE COLOR, TEXTURE, AND SURFACE TREATMENT
OF SHERDS FROM NEAR A HISTORIC SAN PEDRO SITE
POLISHING IS NOT COMMON FOR PRE-1770S O'ODHAM WARES AND MAY BE INDICATIVE OF THE PRESENCE OF A DIFFERENT GROUP, TRADE
WITH ANOTHER GROUP, OR IT MAY BE A LATE PREHISTORIC WARE. POLISHING OCCURS COMMONLY IN THE POST-1770 PERIOD.
LIKELY AN O'ODHAM PLAINWARE, PERHAPS COLONO WARE
MADE AFTER THE 1770S

PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT TO BE APACHE PLAIN BUT O'ODHAM
BEAN POT SHAPE, COILS VISIBLE, AS IS DIMPLING. VESSEL
FORM AND LIP AND RIM TREATMENT ARE TYPICAL OF
O'ODHAM PLAINWARES IN THE POST 1770S PERIOD, E.G.,
THOSE FROM TERRENATE PRESIDIO AND ELSEWHERE ON
THE SAN PEDRO RIVER.

FROM IMHOFF CAVE, NM

IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
IDENTIFIED AS APACHE PLAIN BY ALAN FERG
THE VESSEL FORM AND RIM TREATMENTS ON LATE O'ODHAM POTS
SHOWN BELOW CAN BE COMPARED TO THOSE ABOVE. THE SIMILARITY
SUGGESTS THAT THE IMHOFF CAVE VESSEL WAS TAKEN FROM THE
O'ODHAM OR MADE BY AN O'ODHAM RECRUIT BUT LATE IN TIME AS THE
SURFACE TREATMENT IS A POST-1770S CHARACTERISTIC.
SIERRA PLAIN



FROM CERRO ROJO SITE, NM


IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
TYPE DESCRIPTION
SIERRA PLAIN



FROM LINCOLN NATIONAL FOREST, NM


IDENTIFIED BY DENI SEYMOUR
THIS VESSEL--ATTRIBUTED TO THE APACHE--MAY ACTUALLY BE O'ODHAM
APACHE POTTERY ? FROM SAN LAZARO AREA. SOME
PUEBLOAN PLAINWARES LOOK VERY SIMILAR.

IDENTIFIED BY
THIS RECONSTRUCTED VESSEL--FOUND AT TERRENATE PRESIDIO BY DI
PESO--HAS ATTRIBUTES THAT ARE TRANSITIONAL BETWEEN THE
WHETSTONE PLAIN OF THE 17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES AND THE COLONO
WARES OF THE POST-1770 PERIOD.

OTHER PLAINWARE VESSELS THAT DI PESO CLASSED AS WHETSTONE ARE
SUBSTANTIALLY DIFFERENT AND WOULD NO LONGER BE CONSIDERED
WHETSTONE PLAIN. PLAINWARE WAS NOT THE FOCUS OF STUDY BACK
THEN AND SO POTTERY WITH MANY DISSIMILAR TREATMENTS AND
MATERIALS WERE CLASSED TOGETHER BY VIRTUE OF THEIR
DISSIMILARITY TO KNOWN TYPES. TOO FEW OF THESE UNUSUAL
PLAINWARE SPECIMENS WERE KNOWN AT THE TIME TO EFFECTIVELY
SORT THEM FROM ONE ANOTHER. NOW EXAMPLES ARE WIDESPREAD,
THOUGH STILL FEW IN NUMBER, PROBABLY BECAUSE SOME WERE
IMPORTED FROM GROUPS IN NORTHERN MEXICO.
HISTORIC TOHONO O'ODHAM BEAN POT
Exterior
Interior
(white is calcium carbonate build-up)
AQUARIUS ORANGE

FROM:

IDENTIFIED BY GREGORY SEYMOUR
NUMIC SHERDS / UTE
LOWER COLORADO BUFF WARES
Valle Bajo vessel fragment found on Castner Range in the Franklin Mountains. Likely
made by mission Indians (Piro, Tompiro, Tigua) in the post-1680s period. The vessel
has a very granular surface and soft paste.
Historic vessel fragment found in the
Guadalupe Mountains.
Exterior surface treatment is
variable, these two images show
characteristics common in
historic period plainwares.
Paste shows incomplete firing and voids. Some
small black inclusions are visible. (Sand is
actually orange, colors are true.)
Striations on interior
surface are
reminisant of Alama
Scored's stiated
exteriors and also
Chupadero's striated
interiors. but this is
where the
resemblance ends.
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
INTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
EXTERIOR
INTERIOR
EXTERIOR
The paste is exposed in an eroded portion of the vessel, showing the
presence of variously sized sand inclusions and black voids where organic
material burned out.
The base is relatively flat, but insufficiently so to rest stably by
itself on a flat surface.
The exterior neck of the vessel shows considerable variation in treatment, including wiping or shallow incisions limited to a small
area, red slip and polishing, and an eroded surface that is granular showing the sand inclusions and so looks unfinished or poorly
finished. Each of these might appear to be from a different vessel in sherd form.
A POSSIBLE OPATA VESSEL FROM THE RIO SONORA
Similar variability is apparent in surface treatment on the exterior of the vessel with matte, polished, and red-slipping visible.
Some fire clouding is also apparent or perhaps inconsistent suface darkening from use. Dribbling is also apparent on the surface,
but could be from later activity. The circular and linear voids are places where organic material has burned out, but are only visible
occasionally on the surface.
This vessel shows traces of its intermediate life at the house of the person who found it. Water staining is visible along one
side of the vessel, suggesting it was sitting at the margin of the roof's dripline. Either gray mud (or mortar or concrete)
adheres to the interior rim. A plaster-like substance has been dropped onto the exterior surface.
As a result of moisture a portion of the base of the vessel has exfoliated leaving the white-crusted the paste exposed.
Polishing is not common and so it was considered that
perhaps these might be indicative of a late prehistoric
version or transitional ware. On the other hand, the sherd
on the right, shown in three photos, was OSL dated to the
1600s. This pot break was found in association with
Whetstone Plain and some flaked stone that seems to be
indicative of one of the local mobile groups. This new type
may have been obtained from nations to the south of the
modern border and brought north through trade. This notion
is reinforced by the nature of other artifacts found on this
site and because this site is spatially related to a nearby
Sobaipuri site, suggesting that this was a location where
people stayed when they were visiting.

Polishing re-occurs in the post 1700s period as well.