THE MATERIAL ON THIS PAGE IS COPYRIGHTED AND SHOULD BE APPROPRIATELY CITED (C) 2007-2014, Deni Seymour
Seymour, Deni J., 2011 Where the Earth and Sky are Sewn Together: Sobaípuri-O’odham Contexts of Contact and Colonialism. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Seymour, Deni J., 2010 Quiburi: The Sobaipuri-O'odham Ranchería of Kino's Conception. Under Review New Mexico Historical Review.
Seymour, Deni J., 2010 The Sobaípuri Site of Santa Cruz and Santa Cruz de Terrenate Presidio.
Seymour, Deni J., 2010 The Waning Days of Quiburi: Sobaipuri-O'odham Occupation on the San Pedro River in 1780. Under review at Ethnohistory.
Seymour, Deni J., 2007 A Syndetic Approach to Identification of the Historic Mission Site of San Cayetano Del Tumacácori. International Journal of Historical
Seymour, Deni J., 2007 Delicate Diplomacy on a Restless Frontier: Seventeenth-Century Sobaipuri Social and Economic Relations in Northwestern New Spain, Part I.
New Mexico Historical Review, Volume 82, No. 4.
Seymour, Deni J., 2007 The Rancheria-People of Kino's Congregation: Sobaípuri-O'odham Contexts of Contact and Colonialism. Book manuscript.
Seymour, Deni J., 2003 Sobaipuri-Pima Occupation in the Upper San Pedro Valley: San Pablo de Quiburi. New Mexico Historical Review 78(2):147-166.
Seymour, Deni J., 1990 Sobaipuri-Pima Settlement Along the Upper San Pedro River: A Thematic Survey Between Fairbank and Aravaipa Canyon. Report for the Bureau
of Land Management. On file at the Arizona State Museum.
Seymour, Deni J., 1989 The Dynamics of Sobaipuri Settlement in the Eastern Pimeria Alta. Journal of the Southwest 31(2):205-222.
When referencing Quiburi -- or "Many Houses" in the O'odham language of the Sobaipuri -- it is important to consider that the Kino period Quiburi and the
Quiburi of the late eighteenth century were clearly in two different locations. This is indicated by the documentary record, which has now been afirmed by
the archaeological record.
Quiburi of Kino's time, during the early missionary period (1690s), was described as a settlement with 100 houses and 500 people. This was the principal
settlement on this portion of the San Pedro and Coro was the headman acknowledged by the Spanish. Associated with this settlement was a smaller
rancheria referred to in the text as "Santa Cruz" and on maps as "Santa Cruz del Pitaitutgam" and later as "Santa Cruz de Gaybanipitea." This daughter
settlement, as they are sometimes referenced, consisted of only 20 houses and 100 people. Santa Cruz de Gaybanipitea we are told was a league or
perhaps a league and a half south of Quiburi, a difference that probably relates to the route taken, either along the river or across the terrace and behind the
Kino referred to Quiburi as San Pablo de Quiburi during the 1690s, until the population of Quiburi and Santa Cruz de Gaybanipitea left the San Pedro after a
key battle in 1698. The inhabitants of these two settlments went to live near Sonoita at a village called Los Reyes. It was only a few years later, perhaps as
early as 1704 that these people, under Coro's leadership returned to the San Pedro. Kino then referred to these settlements as Santa Ana del Quiburi and
Santa Cruz. Not as much Spanish-focused activity occured in this area after 1711 when Kino died. The documentary record indicates that the valley
continued to be occupied by Sobiapuri until some time around 1769, when perhaps Santa Cruz was depopulated. Yet, later documentary accounts suggest
that a diminished population at Quiburi remained in the valley, but in a settlement located far to the north of the original Kino-period village.
Opinions as to the location of the Kino-period Quiburi have been published for almost a century. Herbert Bolton in 1916 suggested that this important
Sobaipuri village was under the presidio of Santa Cruz de Terrenate, just north of Fairbank. This perspective was adopted by Charles Di Peso of the
Amerind Foundation when he excavated part of the presidio in the late 1940s and early 1950s. This inference, however, has been disputed by most
historians and archaeologist since then. So is there are Sobaipuri site under Santa Cruz de Terrenate Presidio? If so, is the site Quiburi? Is Quiburi at
In fact, a large settlement matching all the criteria noted in the Kino-period documentary record for Quiburi has been identified in a location separate from
the presidio. This is not the site I reported on in 1989 and 2004 and suggested was Quiburi; that site is too far north and seems to consist of several loci
that were occupied successively. Twenty additional years of erosion have revealed a large site in a location consistent with the documents. Chronometric
dates run on two sherds from this site indicate a date that falls in the Kino period and one that slightly preceeds it, consistent with other evidence that
suggestst this site was occupied for a farily long time. This site is shown below, with places for 100 houses.